New Insights for Red Propolis of Alagoas-Chemical Constituents, Topical Membrane Formulations and Their Physicochemical and Biological Properties

Molecules. 2020 Dec 9;25(24):5811. doi: 10.3390/molecules25245811.


The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the chemical constitution and allergenic potential of red propolis extract (RPE). They were evaluated, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the release of β-hexosaminidase, respectively. A plethora of biologically active polyphenols and the absence of allergic responses were evinced. RPE inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, suggesting that the extract does not stimulate allergic responses. Additionally, the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of hydrogel membranes loaded with RPE were analyzed. Bio-polymeric hydrogel membranes (M) were obtained using 5% carboxymethylcellulose (M1 and M2), 1.0% of citric acid (M3) and 10% RPE (for all). Their characterization was performed using thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), total phenolic content, phenol release test and, antioxidant activity through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP). The latter appointed to the similar antioxidant capacity of the M1, M2 and M3. The degradation profiles showed higher thermostability to M3, followed by M2 and M1. The incorporation of RPE into the matrices and the crosslinking of M3 were evinced by FTIR. There were differences in the release of phenolic compounds, with a higher release related to M1 and lower in the strongly crosslinked M3. The degradation profiles showed higher thermostability to M3, followed by M2 and M1. The antibacterial activity of the membranes was determined using the disc diffusion assay, in comparison with controls, obtained in the same way, without RPE. The membranes elicited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with superior performance over M3. The hydrogel membranes loaded with RPE promote a physical barrier against bacterial skin infections and may be applied in the wound healing process.

Keywords: allergenic activity; anti-staphylococcal; biopolymer; chromatographic profile; phytochemical screening; sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Topical
  • Allergens / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Bandages
  • Biocompatible Materials / administration & dosage
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry
  • Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology
  • Biopolymers / administration & dosage
  • Biopolymers / chemistry
  • Biopolymers / pharmacology
  • Brazil
  • Cell Line
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Drug Compounding
  • Drug Stability
  • Humans
  • Hydrogels
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Mast Cells / drug effects
  • Mast Cells / enzymology
  • Mast Cells / immunology
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Propolis / administration & dosage
  • Propolis / chemistry*
  • Propolis / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis / drug effects
  • Thermogravimetry
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases / metabolism


  • Allergens
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Biopolymers
  • Hydrogels
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Phenols
  • Propolis
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases