Glucodynamics and glucocracy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical evidence and practice-based opinion on modern sulfonylurea use, from an International Expert Group (South Asia, Middle East & Africa) via modified Delphi method

Curr Med Res Opin. 2021 Mar;37(3):403-409. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2020.1864309. Epub 2021 Jan 10.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic. According to international guidelines, the management protocol of T2DM includes lowering of blood glucose, along with preventing disease-related complications and maintaining optimal quality of life. Further, the guidelines recommend the use of a patient-centric approaches for the management of T2DM; however, Asian population is underrepresented in landmark cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs). There are several guidelines available today for the diagnosis and management of T2DM, and hence there is much confusion among practitioners about which guidelines to follow. A group of thirty international clinical experts comprising of endocrinologists, diabetologists and cardiologist from South Asia, Middle East and Africa met at New Delhi, India on February 8 and 9, 2020 and developed an international expert opinion statements via a structured modified Delphi method on the glucodynamic properties of OADs and the glucocratic treatment approach for the management of T2DM. In this modified Delphi consensus report, we document the glucodynamic properties of Modern SUs in terms of glucoconfidence, glucosafety, and gluconomics. According to glucodynamics theory, an ideal antidiabetic drug should be efficacious, safe, and affordable. Modern SUs as a class of OADs that have demonstrated optimal glucodynamics in terms of glucoconfidence, glucosafety, and gluconomics. Hence, modern SUs are most suitable second line drug after metformin for developing countries. Based on the current evidence, we recommend a glucocratic approach for the treatment of T2DM, where an individualized treatment plan with phenotype, lifestyle, environmental, social, and cultural factors should be considered for persons with T2DM in the South Asian, Middle Eastern and African regions.

Keywords: CAROLINA trial; Delphi consensus; Sulfonylureas; T2DM; cardiovascular safety; glimepiride; glycemic control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Asia
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Quality of Life
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds


  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds