Impact of guideline changes on adoption of hypofractionation and breast cancer patient characteristics in the randomized controlled HYPOSIB trial

Strahlenther Onkol. 2021 Sep;197(9):802-811. doi: 10.1007/s00066-020-01730-9. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Abstract

Purpose: Hypofractionated radiotherapy is the standard of care for adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy (RT). However, adoption has been slow. The indication for regional nodal irradiation has been expanded to include patients with 0-3 involved lymph nodes. We investigated the impact of the publication of the updated German S3 guidelines in 2017 on adoption of hypofractionation and enrollment of patients with lymph node involvement within a randomized controlled phase III trial.

Methods: In the experimental arm of the HYPOSIB trial (NCT02474641), hypofractionated RT with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was used. In the standard arm, RT could be given as hypofractionated RT with sequential boost (HFseq), normofractionated RT with sequential boost (NFseq), or normofractionated RT with SIB (NFSIB). The cutoff date for the updated German S3 guidelines was December 17, 2017. Temporal trends were analyzed by generalized linear regression models. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the influence of time (prior to/after guideline) and setting (university hospital/other institutions) on the fractionation patterns.

Results: Enrollment of patients with involved lymph nodes was low throughout the trial. Adoption of HFseq increased over time and when using the guideline publication date as cutoff. Results of the multiple logistic regressions showed an interaction between time and setting. Furthermore, the use of HFseq was significantly more common in university hospitals.

Conclusion: The use of HFseq in the standard arm increased over the course of the HYPOSIB trial and after publication of the S3 guideline update. This was primarily driven by patients treated in university hospitals. Enrolment of patients with lymph node involvement was low throughout the trial.

Keywords: Breast cancer; Guideline implementation; Hypofractionation; Radiotherapy.