Changes Depression- and Anxiety- like Behaviors following Selective Breeding for Cocaine Reinforcement

Psychiatry Res. 2021 Jan;295:113637. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113637. Epub 2020 Dec 9.


The LS and HS are rat lines selectively bred for altered cocaine self-administration. Given the importance of mental health in substance use, these lines were evaluated for putative depression- and anxiety- like behaviors through forced swimming and exploration of a plus maze. We found increases of struggling in LS males, climbing in LS females, and swimming in HS males; with biphasic effects on immobility in the HS strain. HS rats had fewer entries into and less time spent in open arms of the plus maze, consistent with greater anxiety-like behavior, which may contribute to enhanced drug taking.

Keywords: Forced swimming test; Self-Administration; and Stress-Induced Immobility.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anxiety / genetics
  • Anxiety / psychology*
  • Cocaine / administration & dosage*
  • Depression / genetics
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reinforcement, Psychology*
  • Selective Breeding* / genetics
  • Self Administration
  • Swimming / psychology


  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
  • Cocaine