Objectives: To examine the effect of short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory-related hospital admissions and readmissions among patients receiving outpatient haemodialysis.
Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Inpatient hospitalisation claims identified from the US Renal Data System in 530 US counties.
Participants: All patients receiving in-centre haemodialysis between 2008 and 2014.
Primary and secondary outcome measures: Risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory-related hospital admissions and 30-day all-cause and cause-specific readmission following an all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory-related discharges. Readmission risk was evaluated for early (1-7 days postdischarge) and late (8-30 days postdischarge) readmission time periods. Relative risk is expressed per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5.
Results: Same-day ambient PM2.5 was associated with increased hospital admission risk for cardiovascular causes (0.9%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.7). Greater PM2.5-related associations were observed with 30-day readmission risk. Early-readmission risk was increased by 1.6%-1.8% following all-cause (1.6%, 95% CI 0.6% to 2.6%), cardiovascular (1.8%, 95% CI 0.4% to 3.2%) and respiratory (1.8%, 95% CI 0.4% to 3.2%) discharges; while late-readmission risk increased by 1.2%-1.3% following all-cause and cardiovascular discharges. PM2.5-related associations with readmission risk were greatest for certain cause-specific readmissions ranging 4.0%-6.5% for dysrhythmia and conduction disorder, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, other non-cardiac chest pain or respiratory syndrome and pneumonia. Following all-cause discharges, the cause-specific early-readmission risk was increased by 6.5% (95% CI 3.5% to 9.6%) for pneumonia, 4.8% (95% CI 2.3% to 7.4%) for dysrhythmia and conduction disorder, 3.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 6.0%) for heart failure and 2.7% (95% CI 1.2% to 4.2%) for other non-cardiac chest pain or respiratory syndrome-related causes.
Conclusions: Daily ambient PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular admissions and 30-day readmissions following cardiopulmonary-related discharges in a vulnerable end-stage renal disease population. In the first week following discharge, greater PM2.5-related risk of rehospitalisation was identified for some diagnoses.
Keywords: epidemiology; nephrology; public health.
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