In this study, the culture conditions for Porphyridium cruentum were optimized to obtain the maximum biomass and lipid productions. The eicosapentaenoic acid content was increased by pH optimization. P. cruentum was cultured with modified F/2 medium in 14-L photobioreactors using a two-phase culture system, in which the green (520 nm) and red (625 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used during the first and second phases for biomass production and lipid production, respectively. Various parameters, including aeration rate, light intensity, photoperiod, and pH were optimized. The maximum biomass concentration of 0.91 g dcw/l was obtained with an aeration rate of 0.75 vvm, a light intensity of 300 μmol m-2s-1, and a photoperiod of 24:0 h. The maximum lipid production of 51.8% (w/w) was obtained with a light intensity of 400 μmol m-2s-1 and a photoperiod of 18:6 h. Additionally, the eicosapentaenoic acid and unsaturated fatty acid contents reached 30.6% to 56.2% at pH 6.0.
Keywords: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs); Porphyridium cruentum; eicosapentaenoic acid; photobioreactor; unsaturated fatty acids.