The clinical profiles, management, and prognostic factors of biliary mixed neuroendocrine nonneuroendocrine neoplasms: A systematic review of the literature

Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Dec 11;99(50):e23271. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000023271.


Background: Mixed neuroendocrine nonneuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs) originating from the biliary system (gallbladder, biliary tract, or ampulla of Vater) are extremely rare and have not been discussed in detail or systematically. We aimed to present the demographics, clinicopathological characteristics, management, and prognostic factors of biliary MiNENs.

Methods: A systematic search of electronic biomedical databases (Web of Science, PUBMED, and Embase) was performed to identify eligible studies. Survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank tests were used to evaluate the differences between groups, and the effects of various clinical and histopathological features on prognosis were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression.

Results: Fifty-three publications (patients, n = 67) were included. The median overall survival time was 21.0 months. Fifty-one patients (76.1%) underwent radical surgery and median survival for 41 months (P < .001). Twenty-two patients who received adjuvant radiochemotherapy treatment after radical surgery had a median survival for 43 months (P = .076). Radical resection (P < .001), Ki-67 index (P = .011), tumor stage (P < .001), neuroendocrine (NEC) grade (P = .011), and non-NEC grade (P = .017) were independent statistically significant prognostic factors according to univariate analysis; radical resection (P = .010) and small morphological subtype (P = .036) were independent statistically significant prognostic factors associated with higher overall survival according to multivariate analysis, and radical resection (P = .005) and age < 65 years (P = .026) were associated with higher recurrence free survival time.

Conclusion: Radical resection is essential for long-term survival. Aggressive multimodality therapy with adjuvant radiochemotherapy and biotherapy may improve survival of biliary MiNENs. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the standard treatment.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Biliary Tract / pathology
  • Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Biliary Tract Neoplasms / therapy
  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology*
  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy
  • Humans
  • Mixed Tumor, Malignant / diagnosis
  • Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology*
  • Mixed Tumor, Malignant / therapy
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology*
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • Prognosis
  • Survival Analysis