Cellular senescence in ageing: from mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021 Feb;22(2):75-95. doi: 10.1038/s41580-020-00314-w. Epub 2020 Dec 16.


Cellular senescence, first described in vitro in 1961, has become a focus for biotech companies that target it to ameliorate a variety of human conditions. Eminently characterized by a permanent proliferation arrest, cellular senescence occurs in response to endogenous and exogenous stresses, including telomere dysfunction, oncogene activation and persistent DNA damage. Cellular senescence can also be a controlled programme occurring in diverse biological processes, including embryonic development. Senescent cell extrinsic activities, broadly related to the activation of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, amplify the impact of cell-intrinsic proliferative arrest and contribute to impaired tissue regeneration, chronic age-associated diseases and organismal ageing. This Review discusses the mechanisms and modulators of cellular senescence establishment and induction of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, and provides an overview of cellular senescence as an emerging opportunity to intervene through senolytic and senomorphic therapies in ageing and ageing-associated diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging*
  • Animals
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cellular Senescence*
  • DNA Damage
  • Humans
  • Phenotype
  • Telomere*
  • Translational Research, Biomedical*