Interrelations between COVID-19 and other disorders

Clin Immunol. 2021 Mar;224:108651. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2020.108651. Epub 2020 Dec 14.


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a respiratory tract virus that causes Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The virus originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has spread across the globe to-date. The disease ranges from asymptomatic carriers to symptoms such as fever, sore throat, cough, lung infections, and in severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and death. As many as 50% of patients reported having at least one comorbidities with COVID-19 upon hospital admission. Hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases are among the most commonly reported. Comorbidities are contributing to acute disease prognosis and increased risk of severe symptoms. Around 70% of patients who require ICU care have been observed to have comorbidities. This review intends to understand how some of these comorbidities affect the disease's prognosis and how severe the outcome can be expected.

Keywords: Asthma; COVID-19; Cardiovascular diseases; Comorbidities; Diabetes; Hypertension; Novel coronavirus; Preexisting condition; SARS-CoV-2 outcome; Severe outcome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 / complications*
  • COVID-19 / mortality*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / epidemiology
  • SARS-CoV-2