This lecture outlines the various alignment philosophies for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is logical that our desire to improve clinical outcomes for TKA involves a more personalized and physiological implantation process that preserves each patient's anatomical features. We will take a deep dive into the kinematic alignment concept by describing its rationale, surgical steps and results. Kinematic implantation of TKA can be done reliably at a low cost and appears to achieve acceptable implant biomechanics. While its short-term clinical results are encouraging, it must be evaluated further. The thresholds for acceptable alignment (indications for restricted kinematic alignment) still need to be specified. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V; Expert opinion.
Keywords: Kinematic alignment; Mechanical alignment; Physiological implantation; Robotics; Surgical technique; Total knee arthroplasty.
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