Homocoupling Reactions of Azoles and Their Applications in Coordination Chemistry

Molecules. 2020 Dec 15;25(24):5950. doi: 10.3390/molecules25245950.


Pyrazole, a member of the structural class of azoles, exhibits molecular properties of interest in pharmaceuticals and materials chemistry, owing to the two adjacent nitrogen atoms in the five-membered ring system. The weakly basic nitrogen atoms of deprotonated pyrazoles have been applied in coordination chemistry, particularly to access coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks, and homocoupling reactions can in principle provide facile access to bipyrazole ligands. In this context, we summarize recent advances in homocoupling reactions of pyrazoles and other types of azoles (imidazoles, triazoles and tetrazoles) to highlight the utility of homocoupling reactions in synthesizing symmetric bi-heteroaryl systems compared with traditional synthesis. Metal-free reactions and transition-metal catalyzed homocoupling reactions are discussed with reaction mechanisms in detail.

Keywords: bipyrazole; homocoupling; metal–organic frameworks; transition-metal catalysts.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Azoles / chemistry*
  • Catalysis


  • Azoles