Risk for developing perianal abscess in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the impact of poor glycemic control

Int J Colorectal Dis. 2020 Dec 17. doi: 10.1007/s00384-020-03818-1. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to see whether perianal abscess rate differs between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A secondary aim was to determine whether poor glycemic control increases the risk for perianal abscess.

Methods: Data from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry and the Swedish National Patient Registry between January 2008 and June 2015 were matched. The risk for anal abscess was evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses with type of diabetes, HbA1c level, BMI, and various diabetes complications as independent factors.

Results: Patients with type 1 diabetes had a lower rate of perianal abscess than patients with type 2 diabetes when adjusted for HbA1c, sex, and age (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-0.73). The risk for perianal abscess increased with higher HbA1c. Incidence of perianal abscess was also elevated in diabetes patients with complications related to poor glycemic control such as ketoacidosis and coma (OR 2.63; 95% CI 2.06-3.35), gastroparesis, and polyneuropathy (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.41-2.32).

Conclusions: The prevalence of perianal abscess was higher among patients with type 2 diabetes than those with type 1, suggesting that metabolic derangement may be more important than autoimmune factors. Poor glycemic control was associated with higher risk for perianal abscess.

Keywords: Diabetes; Glycemic control; HbA1c; Perianal abscess.