Ougan juice debittering using ultrasound-aided enzymatic hydrolysis: Impacts on aroma and taste

Food Chem. 2021 May 30;345:128767. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128767. Epub 2020 Dec 3.


The optimal sonication conditions (40 kHz, 80 W/L and 60 min) during Ougan juice debittering by Aspergillus niger koji extract were established. Enzymatic hydrolysis degrees of naringin and limonin were enhanced to 89.90% and 36.16%, and enzymatic hydrolysis time was shortened by 33%. Sonication significantly enhanced activities of α-l-rhamnosidases, β-glucosidases and limoninases from A. niger koji extract and facilitated break of CO bonds in naringin (p < 0.05). These accounted for the enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis degrees and velocities of bitter compounds. Meanwhile, sonication lowered 40%, 7% and 21%, 13%, 11%, 25% of bitter, sour tastes and green, citrus-like, floral, woody notes, but enhanced 18% and 15% of fruity and sweet notes, resulting in 38% and 33% increases in over-all taste and aroma scores. Lowered levels of bitter compounds, organic acids, green, citrus-like, floral, woody aroma compounds and enhanced levels of fruity, sweet aroma compounds caused by sonication accounted for the flavor improvements.

Keywords: (R)-Limonene (PubChem CID: 440917); Aroma; Aspergillus niger; Citronellal (PubChem CID: 7794); Debittering; Limonin (PubChem CID: 179651); Naringin (PubChem CID: 442428); Ougan; Taste; Ultrasound; d-Carvone (PubChem CID: 16724); β-myrcene (PubChem CID: 31253).

MeSH terms

  • Aspergillus niger / enzymology
  • Citrus / chemistry*
  • Flavoring Agents / analysis
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Hydrolysis
  • Odorants / analysis*
  • Sonication
  • Taste*


  • Flavoring Agents
  • Glycoside Hydrolases