Psychometric Testing of the Turkish Version of Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale

J Pediatr Nurs. 2021 May-Jun;58:60-64. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2020.11.008. Epub 2020 Dec 16.


Aims and objectives: This study was conducted to determine the Turkish validity-reliability of the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale (CEMS).

Design: A methodological study design was used.

Methods: The research was comprised 100 children aged between 7 and 12 who underwent a surgical operation. To ensure the reliability of the scale, necessary permissions were obtained from the creator of the scale and the ethical committee. Language, content, and structure were validated for the validity of the scale.

Results: Content validity index was calculated as 0.96. Confirmatory factor were performed for construct validity. The scale was found to have relatively good model fit indicators. To determine the reliability of the scale, internal consistency coefficient and compliance between observers were evaluated. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient of the scale was found to be 0.94, and the ICC coefficient evaluated among the observers ranged between 0.970 and 0.981.

Conclusion: As a result, CEMS was identified as a simple, objective, valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to evaluate the emotional indicators of children in the Turkish population.

Practice implications: CEMS is appropriate clinical research tool to use in evaluating the children response to stressful medical procedures and effectiveness of interventions directed towards minimizing anxiety and bolstering coping mechanisms in children undergoing surgery.

Keywords: CEMS; Children; Reliability; Validity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anxiety
  • Child
  • Emotions*
  • Humans
  • Language*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results