Metabolic risk factors and the role of prophylaxis in pediatric urolithiasis

J Pediatr Urol. 2021 Apr;17(2):215.e1-215.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2020.12.003. Epub 2020 Dec 6.


Suppose that the recurrence in pediatric urolithiasis has a close relationship with metabolic abnormalities and is affected by residual burden and prophylaxis. If so, the recurrence rates could be reduced with effective surgery and appropriate prophylaxis. Here we retrospectively evaluate the metabolic risk factors data of 148 children who were operated on between January 2005 and March 2013 due to kidney stones. All patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and all were children. Thirteen children had a history of surgery performed to treat urological anomalies. Twenty-four-hour urine analysis, the residual status of surgery, BMI levels, and the number of metabolic abnormalities were noted. Only 18 (15%) of 122 patients without residual stones after PCNL had recurrence at follow-up whereas; nine (26%) of 26 patients with residual stones developed recurrence (p = 0.017). Recurrence was observed in 14 (16%) of 89 patients with a metabolic abnormality, and 13 (30%) of 44 patients with two or more metabolic abnormalities had recurrence at follow-up (p = 0.024). Those patients with no metabolic abnormalities did not develop recurrence. Stone recurrence was seen in six (8%) of 78 children who were given metabolic prophylaxis, compared to 21 (30%) of 70 patients who did not receive metabolic prophylaxis (p = 0.02). No stone recurrence was seen in nine children who were given Shohl's, whereas four (67%) of six patients who did not take Shohl's had recurrence (p = 0.022). Complete removal of stones by a suitable surgical method is essential to avoid recurrences. Detailed clinical and laboratory evaluations should be performed in children with urolithiasis. Appropriate specific prophylactic treatment (e.g., potassium citrate and Shohl's) and non-specific prophylactic treatment (e.g., avoiding animal proteins, salt, simple sugars, and increased water intake) should be given to prevent reformation of stones in patients with pediatric urolithiasis.

Keywords: Metabolic; Pediatric; Prophylaxis; Recurrence; Urolithiasis.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi*
  • Potassium Citrate / therapeutic use
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Urolithiasis* / prevention & control
  • Urolithiasis* / surgery


  • Potassium Citrate