Syndromic Forms of Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia-A 15-year follow-up Study

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2021 Mar;94(3):399-412. doi: 10.1111/cen.14393. Epub 2021 Jan 31.


Objective: Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) is one of the commonest causes of hypoglycaemia in children. The molecular basis includes defects in pathways that regulate insulin release. Syndromic conditions like Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS), Kabuki (KS) and Turner (TS) are known to be associated with a higher risk for HH. This systematic review of children with HH referred to a tertiary centre aims at estimating the frequency of a syndromic/multisystem condition to help address stratification of genetic analysis in infants with HH.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 69 patients with syndromic features and hypoglycaemia in a specialist centre from 2004 to 2018.

Results: Biochemical investigations confirmed HH in all the cases and several genetic diagnoses were established. Responsiveness to medications and the final outcome following medical treatment or surgery were studied.

Conclusions: This study highlights the association of HH with a wide spectrum of syndromic diagnoses and that children with features suggestive of HH-associated syndromes should be monitored for hypoglycaemia. If hypoglycaemia is documented, they should also be screened for possible HH. Our data indicate that most syndromic forms of HH are diazoxide-responsive and that HH resolves over time; however, a significant percentage continues to require medications years after the onset of the disease. Early diagnosis of hyperinsulinism and initiation of treatment is important for preventing hypoglycaemic brain injury and intellectual disability.

Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome; Hyperinsulininaemic hypoglycaemia; Kabuki syndrome; Turner syndrome; syndromes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Congenital Hyperinsulinism* / drug therapy
  • Congenital Hyperinsulinism* / genetics
  • Diazoxide / therapeutic use
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Syndrome


  • Diazoxide