EnAET: A Self-Trained Framework for Semi-Supervised and Supervised Learning With Ensemble Transformations

IEEE Trans Image Process. 2021;30:1639-1647. doi: 10.1109/TIP.2020.3044220. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Abstract

Deep neural networks have been successfully applied to many real-world applications. However, such successes rely heavily on large amounts of labeled data that is expensive to obtain. Recently, many methods for semi-supervised learning have been proposed and achieved excellent performance. In this study, we propose a new EnAET framework to further improve existing semi-supervised methods with self-supervised information. To our best knowledge, all current semi-supervised methods improve performance with prediction consistency and confidence ideas. We are the first to explore the role of self-supervised representations in semi-supervised learning under a rich family of transformations. Consequently, our framework can integrate the self-supervised information as a regularization term to further improve all current semi-supervised methods. In the experiments, we use MixMatch, which is the current state-of-the-art method on semi-supervised learning, as a baseline to test the proposed EnAET framework. Across different datasets, we adopt the same hyper-parameters, which greatly improves the generalization ability of the EnAET framework. Experiment results on different datasets demonstrate that the proposed EnAET framework greatly improves the performance of current semi-supervised algorithms. Moreover, this framework can also improve supervised learning by a large margin, including the extremely challenging scenarios with only 10 images per class. The code and experiment records are available in https://github.com/maple-research-lab/EnAET.