A case-control study of the role of diet in the cause of breast cancer was conducted in Athens, Greece. The case series consisted of 120 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer admitted to either of two teaching hospitals over a 12-month period. The controls were 120 patients admitted to a teaching hospital for trauma and orthopedic conditions during the same period. Dietary histories concerning the frequency of consumption of 120 foods and drinks were obtained by interview. Nutrient intakes for individuals were estimated by multiplying the nutrient content of a selected typical portion size for each specified food item by the frequency that the food was used per month and summing these estimates for all food items. Cases reported significantly less frequent consumption of vitamin A after controlling for total caloric intake, potential external confounding variables and other nutrients associated with breast cancer risk. The odds ratio estimated for consumption of vitamin A equal to the value of the 90th centile versus consumption equal to the value of the 10th centile was 0.46 with 90% confidence limits 0.26-0.82. There was no evidence that high intake of dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer.