Most patients with metastatic prostate cancer will have metastasis to bone. Such patients are best monitored by serial radionuclide bone scans. One hundred sixty six men with bone metastasis from prostate cancer who received androgen deprivation therapy had their pretreatment bone scans reviewed using a semiquantitative grading system based upon the extent of disease (EOD) observed on the scan. The EOD on the scan correlated with survival. The 2-year survival rates for EOD I to IV were 94%, 74%, 68%, and 40%, respectively. The survival of patients in categories EOD I and IV significantly differed from the other categories. Men with metastatic prostate cancer entered into trials designed to evaluate the impact of treatment on survival should be stratified based upon the EOD on the bone scan. This analysis also indicates that patients in the EOD IV category have a particularly poor prognosis and may be candidates for alternative treatments.