Consumption of animal and plant foods and risk of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: the Bogalusa Heart Study

ESC Heart Fail. 2020 Oct;7(5):2700-2710. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.12859. Epub 2020 Jul 10.


Aims: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is an early heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) phenotype that is reversible. Identifying dietary predictors associated with LVDD in diverse populations may help broadly improve HFpEF primary prevention.

Methods and results: This longitudinal analysis included 456 individuals of the Bogalusa Heart Study (27% Black, 63% women, baseline age = 36.1 ± 4.4 years). Diet was measured at baseline through food frequency questionnaires. LVDD was defined at follow-up (median = 12.9 years) through echocardiographic measurement of the E/A ratio, E/e' ratio, isovolumic relaxation time, and deceleration time. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression estimated the risk of LVDD according to dietary predictor, adjusting for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Compared with the lowest tertile, participants in the middle tertile of total protein (OR = 3.30, 95% CI: 1.46, 7.45) and animal protein (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.34, 6.34) consumption experienced the highest risk of LVDD. There was a 77% and 56% lower risk of LVDD for persons in the middle vs. lowest tertile of vegetable (OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.49) and legume consumption (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.85), respectively. Total protein, animal protein, processed meat, and egg consumption indicated a quadratic trend towards increased risk of LVDD, while legume and vegetable intake conferred a quadratic trend towards decreased risk of LVDD (all quadratic P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Diets higher in animal foods and lower in plant foods are associated with an increased risk for LVDD. These findings suggest threshold effects of diet on LVDD, past which more traditional cardiometabolic determinants occupy a larger role in HFpEF risk.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; Diastole; Dietary protein; Heart failure; Plant‐based diet; Red meat.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left* / epidemiology
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left* / etiology