Bisphenol A: Food Exposure and Impact on Human Health

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2018 Nov;17(6):1503-1517. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12388. Epub 2018 Sep 5.


Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial compound used extensively to produce synthetic polymers, such as epoxy resins, which are incorporated into the inner coating of metal cans, and also to manufacture polycarbonates with applications in bottles, including bottles of water. Several studies have reported on the transfer of this compound to food. Regarding human exposure to BPA, food intake can be considered the most serious among all the routes, not only because it potentially reaches more people in different age groups (including infants, an especially vulnerable group), but also because it inadvertently occurs over long time periods. BPA is considered an endocrine disruptor and several studies have proposed a relationship between exposure to BPA and the appearance of adverse health effects, such as cancer, infertility, diabetes, and obesity, among others. In 2015 however, the European Food Safety Authority concluded in its last scientific opinion that this compound does not pose any risk to the exposed population's health. Therefore, the EU regards BPA as an authorized product to be used as food contact material. Although BPA intake through food is apparently below the set limits, research into BPA and its potential negative effects is still ongoing. This review contains the most recent in vitro and in vivo studies on BPA toxicity and its harmful effects on health, and it intends to address human exposure to BPA, namely through dietary exposure and its impact on human health.

Keywords: bisphenol A; epoxy resins; food exposure; health; toxicity.