The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of implanting expandable intravascular stents in pulmonary arteries and systemic veins. Twenty-seven balloon-expandable grafts were placed in 13 mongrel dogs under anesthesia. A long sheath was introduced over a wire and catheter or dilator into the pulmonary artery or target vein. A collapsed stainless steel expandable mesh stent was placed over the balloon of an angioplasty catheter. The catheter with the mounted stent was advanced through the sheath. The stent expanded to the diameter of the balloon as the balloon was inflated, and remained expanded as the balloon was deflated. The stent was expanded further with a larger balloon in 11 instances. Eleven stents were placed successfully in pulmonary arteries (out of thirteen attempted), and 11 of 14 were installed in tributaries of the precava or postcava. Three inadvertent embolizations of the devices occurred. All three devices that embolized lodged in the pulmonary arteries and did not obstruct flow. Seven dogs were recatheterized at intervals ranging from 56 to 278 days. Twelve stents were patent and nonobstructive, and two were malpositioned, one of which was obstructed. Three animals were killed 2 months (two dogs) and 9 months (one dog) after the implantations. The stents (four in the pulmonary arteries and two in veins) were completely covered with neointima and were patent, without thrombosis. These stents hold promise for definitive dilation of congenital or postoperative vessel stenoses.