Megakaryocytes (MKs) are responsible for platelet biogenesis, which is believed to occur canonically in adult bone marrow (BM) and in the fetal liver during development. However, emerging evidence highlights the lung as a previously underappreciated residence for MKs that may contribute significantly to circulating platelet mass. Although a diversity of cells specific to the BM is known to promote the maturation and trafficking of MKs, little investigation into the impact of the lung niche on the development and function of MKs has been done. Here, we describe the application of single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled with histological, ploidy, and flow cytometric analyses, to profile primary MKs derived from syngeneic mouse lung and hematopoietic tissues. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that lung MKs have a unique signature distinct from their hematopoietic counterparts, with lung MKs displaying enrichment for maturation markers, potentially indicating a propensity for more efficient platelet production. Reciprocally, fetal lung MKs also showed the robust expression of cytokines and growth factors that are known to promote lung development. Lastly, lung MKs possess an enrichment profile skewed toward roles in immunity and inflammation. These findings highlight the existence of a lung-specific MK phenotype and support the notion that the lung plays an independent role in the development and functional maturation of MKs. The immune phenotype displayed by lung MKs also introduces their potential role in microbial surveillance and antigen presentation.
© 2020 by The American Society of Hematology.