Management of heart failure in cardiac amyloidosis using an ambulatory diuresis clinic

Am Heart J. 2021 Mar:233:122-131. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2020.12.009. Epub 2020 Dec 22.


Background: Recurrent congestion in cardiac amyloidosis (CA) remains a management challenge, often requiring high dose diuretics and frequent hospitalizations. Innovative outpatient strategies are needed to effectively manage heart failure (HF) in patients with CA. Ambulatory diuresis has not been well studied in restrictive cardiomyopathy. Therefore, we aimed to examine the outcomes of an ambulatory diuresis clinic in the management of congestion related to CA.

Methods and results: We retrospectively studied patients with CA seen in an outpatient HF disease management clinic for (1) safety outcomes of ambulatory intravenous (IV) diuresis and (2) health care utilization. Forty-four patients with CA were seen in the clinic a total of 203 times over 6 months. Oral diuretics were titrated at 96 (47%) visits. IV diuretics were administered at 56 (28%) visits to 17 patients. There were no episodes of severe acute kidney injury or symptomatic hypotension. There was a significant decrease in emergency department and inpatient visits and associated charges after index visit to the clinic. The proportion of days hospitalized per 1000 patient days of follow-up decreased as early as 30 days (147.3 vs 18.1/1000 patient days of follow-up, P< .001) and persisted through 180 days (33.6 vs 22.9/1000 patient days of follow-up, P< .001) pre- vs post-index visit to the clinic.

Conclusions: We demonstrate the feasibility of ambulatory IV diuresis in patients with CA. Our findings also suggest that use of a HF disease management clinic may reduce acute care utilization in patients with CA. Leveraging multidisciplinary outpatient HF clinics may be an effective alternative to hospitalization in patients with HF due to CA, a population who otherwise carries a poor prognosis and contributes to high health care burden.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities* / economics
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities* / statistics & numerical data
  • Amyloidosis / complications*
  • Cardiomyopathies / complications*
  • Diuresis
  • Diuretics / administration & dosage
  • Diuretics / therapeutic use*
  • Emergency Service, Hospital / statistics & numerical data
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Heart Failure / etiology
  • Heart Failure / therapy*
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Diuretics