3D-Printed Veterinary Dosage Forms-A Comparative Study of Three Semi-Solid Extrusion 3D Printers

Pharmaceutics. 2020 Dec 19;12(12):1239. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12121239.


Currently, the number of approved veterinary medicines are limited, and human medications are used off-label. These approved human medications are of too high potencies for a cat or a small dog breed. Therefore, there is a dire demand for smaller doses of veterinary medicines. This study aims to investigate the use of three semi-solid extrusion 3D printers in a pharmacy or animal clinic setting for the extemporaneous manufacturing of prednisolone containing orodispersible films for veterinary use. Orodispersible films with adequate content uniformity and acceptance values as defined by the European Pharmacopoeia were produced with one of the studied printers, namely the Allevi 2 bioprinter. Smooth and flexible films with high mechanical strength, neutral pH, and low moisture content were produced with a high correlation between the prepared design and the obtained drug amount, indicating that the Allevi 2 printer could successfully be used to extemporaneously manufacture personalized doses for animals at the point-of-care.

Keywords: 3D printing; additive manufacturing; drug delivery; extemporaneous manufacturing; personalized dosage forms; prednisolone; semi-solid extrusion 3D printing; veterinary medicine.