Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Inflammation Increases the Risks of Acute Kidney Injury and Mortality after Cardiac Surgery

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 18;21(24):9689. doi: 10.3390/ijms21249689.


Cardiovascular mortality increases with decreasing renal function although the cause is yet unknown. Here, we have investigated whether low chronic inflammation in chronic kidney diseases (CKD) could contribute to increased risk for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Thus, a prospective case-control study was conducted in patients with CAD and CKD undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with the aim of detecting differences in cardiovascular outcomes, epicardial adipose tissue volume, and inflammatory marker activity associated with renal dysfunction. Expression of membrane CD14 and CD16, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and hsa-miR-30a-5p were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Epicardial fat volume and tissue inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue and in the aorta were also studied. In the present study, 151 patients were included, 110 with CAD (51 with CKD) and 41 nonCAD controls (15 with CKD). CKD increased the risk of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) as well as the 30-day mortality after cardiac surgery. Higher counts of CD14++CD16+ monocytes were associated with vascular inflammation, with an increased expression of IL1β, and with CKD in CAD patients. Expression of hsa-miR-30a-5p was correlated with hypertension. We conclude that CKD patients show an increased risk of CSA-AKI and mortality after cardiovascular surgery, associated with the expansion of the CD14++CD16+ subset of proinflammatory monocytes and with IL1β expression. We propose that inflammation associated with CKD may contribute to atherosclerosis (ATH) pathogenesis.

Keywords: CD14++CD16+ monocytes; cardiac surgery–associated acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; coronary artery diseases; hsa-miR-30a-5p; inflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / pathology
  • Aged
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / mortality*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / pathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / complications*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology*
  • Survival Rate