Pharmacological treatment of social phobia has not been extensively studied. Recent reports suggest that social phobia may be treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, beta-blockers, or clonidine. The authors describe four patients with social phobia who responded moderately to markedly well when treated with the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam. Patients with social phobia and patients with agoraphobia with panic attacks differ in the focus of anxiety, sensitivity to lactate infusion, and the pattern of symptoms during anxiety episodes. However, there is significant overlap in the clinical features of these two patient groups. The preliminary finding that several types of pharmacological agents that are effective in treating agoraphobia with panic attacks may also be effective in treating social phobia suggests that the two disorders may share some common pathophysiology.