Clinical Review of COVID-19; Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management

Curr Pharm Des. 2021;27(41):4232-4244. doi: 10.2174/1381612826666201222162509.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, or COVID-19 virus) is a worldwide pandemic pathogen infecting 210 territories. It belongs to the family coronaviriadae and the order Nidovirales. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA enveloped virus that includes spike proteins projecting from the envelope. The spike (S) protein interacts with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which plays a role in the viral entry into the cell. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is zoonotic; the wet animal market where live animals are sold is expected to be the source of infection. It is the third zoonotic coronavirus, after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Transmission of the virus among humans is confirmed by direct contact, droplet infection, fecal-oral, and blood transmission. The symptoms of COVID 19 include fever, dry cough, headache, and difficulty in breathing. COVID 19 complications, including the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute organ injury, secondary infection, and shock, are common in immunocompromised and elderly patients. Up till now, there is no established treatment for COVID-19, and supportive measures including mechanical ventilation and the use of nonspecific anti-viral therapies such as Remdesevir, Liponavir, and chloroquine, are currently applied in severe cases. Also, until now, there is no approved vaccine for COVID-19. In this review, we have provided an update on the SARS-COV2 virus, focusing on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, treatment options, and preventive measures associated with COVID-19 cases.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-COV2; coronavirus; diagnosis; management.; pandemic; pathogenesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / diagnosis
  • COVID-19* / pathology
  • COVID-19* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Viral Zoonoses


  • COVID-19 Vaccines