The US opioid epidemic challenges us to rethink our understanding of the function of opioids and the nature of chronic pain. We have neatly separated opioid use and abuse as well as physical and social pain in ways that may not be consistent with the most recent neuroscientific and epidemiological research. Physical injury and social rejection activate similar brain centers. Many of the patients who use opioid medications long term for the treatment of chronic pain have both physical and social pain, but these medications may produce a state of persistent opioid dependence that suppresses the endogenous opioid system that is essential for human socialization and reward processing. Recognition of the social aspects of chronic pain and opioid action can improve our treatment of chronic pain and our use of opioid medications.
Keywords: addiction; endogenous opioid system; opioid dependence; reward; social rejection.
© 2021 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.