Pancreatic Cancer: A Review of Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2020 Jan-Dec:19:1533033820962117. doi: 10.1177/1533033820962117.


This review aims to summarize the latest knowledge on factors, diagnosis, and treatment of pancreatic cancer, and aims to promote further research on this under-studied malignant tumor. At present, we urgently need to identify high-risk patients with precancerous diseases through screening approaches, so that medical professionals and the general public may better understand prevention strategies or early detection measures. Pancreatic cancer is a highly invasive malignant tumor with a fatal risk, mainly seen in men and older adults (60-85 years old). Pancreatic cancer is now increasingly observed in young patients. Because the disease has no early symptoms and can quickly invade surrounding tissues and organs, it is one of the deadliest cancers. With a view to identify the important factors for the development of pancreatic cancer, previous studies have found that smoking, alcohol, and chronic pancreatitis are considered high-risk factors. Recent studies have shown that abnormal metabolism of human microorganisms, blood type, and glucose and lipid levels are also important factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. Identifying early diagnosis options is an important way to improve detection and survival rates of pancreatic cancer. None of the many tumor markers associated with pancreatic cancer are highly specific, which also indicates further research is required to improve the early detection rate. Future directions in terms of treatment evaluating the relationship between the microbiology-free system and immunotherapy will bring a major breakthrough and is expected to bring exciting clinical applications in improving the life-cycle of pancreatic cancer patients.

Keywords: human microorganisms; immunotherapy; pancreatic cancer; risk factors; treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Combined Modality Therapy / methods
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Disease Management
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Endoscopy / methods
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Pathology, Molecular
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biomarkers, Tumor