Elevated pediatric age-adjusted shock-index (SIPA) in blunt solid organ injuries

J Pediatr Surg. 2021 Feb;56(2):401-404. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.10.022. Epub 2020 Oct 24.


Background/purpose: Shock index-pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) is a proven tool to predict outcomes in blunt pediatric trauma. We hypothesized that an elevated SIPA in either the pre-hospital or in the emergency department (ED) would identify children with blunt liver or spleen injury (BLSI) needing a blood transfusion and those at risk for failure of non-operative management (NOM).

Methods: Pediatric patients (1-18 years) in the ACS pediatric-TQIP database (2014-2016) with a BLSI were included. Patients were stratified by the need for a blood transfusion and/or abdominal operation.

Results: A total of 3561 patients had BLSI, of which 4% received a blood transfusion, and 4% underwent an abdominal operation. Patients who received blood had higher ISS scores (27.0 vs. 5.0, p < 0.001) and mortality (22% vs. 0.4%, p < 0.001). Those who failed NOM had higher ISS scores (17.0 vs. 5.0, p < 0.001) and mortality (7.9% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.001). On multivariable regression, an elevated SIPA score in either pre-hospital or ED was significantly associated with blood transfusion (odds ratio (OR) 8.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 5.8-11.5, p < 0.001) and failure of NOM (OR 2.3, CI 1.5-3.4, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Hemodynamic instability, represented by an elevated pre-hospital or ED SIPA, accurately identifies children with BLSI who may need blood products or an operative intervention.

Type of study: Retrospective Comparative Study.

Level of evidence: Level III.

Keywords: Children; Pediatric trauma; SIPA; Solid organ injury.

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Injuries* / diagnosis
  • Abdominal Injuries* / therapy
  • Child
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Humans
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Liver / injuries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Shock*
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating* / therapy