Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of pneumococcal infections and recommended to receive the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Although the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been found to have higher immunogenicity compared to PPV23 in adults with some immunocompromising conditions, previous PPV23 immunization may decrease the immunogenicity of PCV13. We assessed immunogenicity and safety of PCV13 in 74 PPV23-naïve and 58 previously PPV23-immunized (>1 year ago) patients with severe (stage 4-5) CKD. Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA specific to seven serotypes, i.e. 3, 6B, 9V, 14, 19A, 19F, 23F were quantified pre- and 4 weeks and one year post-immunization. Baseline concentrations for most serotype-specific IgG and IgM, and serotype 3-specific IgA were higher in previously PPV23-immunized compared to PPV23-naïve patients. Immunization with PCV13 significantly increased almost all serotype-specific IgG, all IgA and some IgM; an increase in some serotype-specific IgG and IgM lasted for one year. Fold increases in antibody concentrations and the proportion of individuals with >2-fold increase post-immunization were generally larger in PPV23-naïve than previously immunized patients for most serotype-specific IgG and some IgA. The data show that in patients with CKD who received previous PPV23 immunization over one year ago, the antibody response to PCV13 was inferior compared to pneumococcal vaccine naïve study participants. In both groups, the lowest response to PCV13 was found for serotype 3. Patients of Indigenous ethnic background demonstrated a superior immune response to PCV13 compared to the non-Indigenous counterpart that could partially be related to Indigenous study participants' younger age. Although we found that previous PPV23 immunization could contribute to the more frequent occurrence of systemic adverse events post PCV13 immunization, those did not exceed the mild to moderate range.
Keywords: 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; Chronic kidney disease; Immunization; Indigenous; Serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody.
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