Mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumour of the testis and ovary: comparison and contrast

Pathology. 2021 Feb;53(2):166-169. doi: 10.1016/j.pathol.2020.10.008. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Abstract

Mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumours (MGC-SCSTs) of the testis and ovary differ significantly in their histological appearance, clinical behaviour, and molecular genetics. Until recently, the germ cells of testicular MGC-SCST were considered to be invariably histologically bland, whereas those from neoplasms that arise in the ovary have histological features characteristic of premalignancy. However, a recent histological and molecular genetic study demonstrated histological abnormalities and multiple chromosomal losses and gains in a small subset of testicular cases, thus providing the first evidence that testicular MGC-SCSTs can exceptionally show histological and molecular abnormalities. All cases of testicular MGC-SCST reported to date have been clinically benign, whereas ovarian examples are sometimes the precursor of a malignant germ cell neoplasm that can be clinically aggressive. Both genetic and epigenetic influences likely account for dissimilarities in these uncommon gonadal neoplasms.

Keywords: Gonad; mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumour; ovary; testis; tumours composed of both germ cell and sex cord elements.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Markers
  • Germ Cells / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • Ovary / pathology*
  • Pathology, Molecular
  • Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors* / genetics
  • Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors* / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • Testis / pathology*

Substances

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Genetic Markers