The microbiome is greatly significant for immune system development and homeostasis. Dysbiosis in gut microbial composition and function is linked to immune responses and the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM). However, skin microbiome changes in diabetic patients and their role in DM are poorly elucidated. In this review, we summarize recent findings about the association between the gut and skin microbiota and DM, highlighting their roles in the proinflammatory status of DM. Moreover, although there is evidence that the connection between the gut and skin causes the same activated innate immune response, additional studies are needed to explore the mechanism. These findings might inform future DM prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; gut microbiome; skin microbiome.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.