Three way ANOVA for emulsion of carotenoids extracted in flaxseed oil from carrot bio-waste

Waste Manag. 2021 Feb 15;121:67-76. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.11.037. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Abstract

The juice expelled from carrot, a globally produced root vegetable, leavesbehind carrot pomace (a bio- and horticultural waste) which is potentially rich source of micro-nutrients and carotenoids.However, it is discarded as waste or used as animal feed. It holds potential to be channelized to food chain by a couple of technological interventions. In this regard, present work was aimed at preparing stable emulsion based delivery system for 'green' carotenoids extracted from carrot-pomace in flaxseed oil (a green solvent), and at maximizing the amount of core material so that the resultant emulsion can potentially be used as a source of both carotenoids and omega-3 fatty acid of flaxseed oil origin. The study used natural emulsifier. Preparation of oil-in-water emulsion was optimized using 33 factorial experiment by varying levels of extract containing carotenoid (30-40%), whey protein concentrates (WPC-80) and lactose. The optimized emulsion (CREm) was selected on the basis of particle size, zeta potential, color values (L*, a*, b*) and viscosity statistically analyzed via three-way ANOVA using Proc GLM of SAS 9.3 (described in detail in this paper); the respective values of these parameters being 120.03 ± 8.20 nm, -16.57 ± 0.49 mV, 75.11 ± 0.04, 9.66 ± 0.32, 50.29 ± 0.62, and 0.124 ± 0.0115 Pa.s for CREm. CREm contained 35% flaxseed oil, 10% WPC-80 and 5% lactose and showed good centrifugal and gravitational stability (15 days). It was analyzed for total carotenoid content, antioxidant activities (ABTS (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay)) and microstructure.

Keywords: Carrot pomace; Encapsulation efficiency; Flaxseed oil; Green extraction; Nano-emulsion; Natural emulsifier.

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Carotenoids
  • Daucus carota*
  • Emulsions
  • Linseed Oil

Substances

  • Emulsions
  • Carotenoids
  • Linseed Oil