Women and girls with haemophilia and bleeding tendencies: Outcomes related to menstruation, pregnancy, surgery and other bleeding episodes from a retrospective chart review

Haemophilia. 2021 Mar;27(2):293-304. doi: 10.1111/hae.14232. Epub 2020 Dec 24.


Introduction: Women or girls with haemophilia (WGH) represent a group of female symptomatic carriers who experience bleeding events more frequently than non-carriers. Bleeding events include spontaneous/traumatic bleeds and prolonged bleeding related to surgery, menstruation and pregnancy. Challenges for the treatment of WGH include lack of screening, diagnosis and treatment guidelines.

Aim: Evaluate clinical characteristics, haemostasis management and clinical outcomes regarding menstruation, childbirth, dental procedures, surgeries and other bleeding events in WGH.

Methods: A retrospective, non-interventional review of medical records from WGH among three haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) was conducted in the United States (2012-2018). Patients with ≥2 visits to the HTC and who had undergone intervention for haemostasis management with the outcome documented were included. Descriptive statistics were used.

Results: Of 47 women and girls included in the chart review (37 with factor VIII deficiency, 10 with factor IX deficiency), median age at diagnosis was 22.6 years. Approximately 79% (n = 37) were diagnosed with mild haemophilia. Events of interest were primarily managed by factor concentrates or antifibrinolytics. Most treatment approaches were successful across clinical scenarios, except for heavy menstrual bleeding being insufficiently controlled in 8 (57%) of the 14 patients who experienced it.

Conclusions: Bleeding events in WGH, such as excessive and prolonged bleeding during menstruation, demonstrate a unique burden and require specific medical intervention. These results highlight the importance of assessing the need for haemostasis management in WGH and may contribute to future prospective study designs.

Keywords: bleeding; carriers; factor IX; factor VIII; female; haemophilia; treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Factor VIII
  • Female
  • Hemophilia A* / complications
  • Hemophilia B*
  • Humans
  • Menstruation
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Factor VIII

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