Background: Gabriele-de Vries syndrome (GADEVS), also known as YY1 haploinsufficiency syndrome, is a very rare autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) due to YY1 mutation characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID), a wide spectrum of functional and morphologic abnormalities, and intrauterine growth restriction or low birth weight and feeding difficulties are common in the patients. However, NDDs, such as language development disorder and ID, could hardly be assessed in patients younger than 2 years old.
Methods: We describe a 9-month-old female with DD, failure to thrive, and facial dysmorphism. Genetic analysis was conducted by whole exome sequencing (WES) and confirmed by Sanger sequencing.
Results: In addition to DD and dysmorphic facial features, this patient had urinary tract infection, acute pyelonephritis, bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (grade III), gastroesophageal reflux, and malnutrition. She was found to have foramen ovale or atrial septal defect, and enlarged left lateral ventricle in the brain. After performing WES, a novel heterozygous mutation NM_003403.5:c.1124G>A, p.Arg375Gln in the YY1 gene was identified.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that genetic tests are critical technique for diagnosis of GADEVS, especially in patients with early-childhood, unexplained developmental or growth disorders, thus, the prevalence of GADEVS may be underestimated. The clinical features and identified YY1 mutation in our patient expand the spectra of phenotypes and genotypes of GADEVS, respectively.
Keywords: Gabriele-de Vries syndrome; YY1 gene; haploinsufficiency; intellectual disability; neurodevelopmental disorder.
© 2020 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.