Purpose: Postoperative infectious related complications are not uncommon after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Previously, we noted that 7 days of antibiotics did not decrease sepsis rates compared to just perioperative antibiotics in a low risk percutaneous nephrolithotomy population. This study aimed to compare the same regimens in individuals at moderate to high risk for sepsis undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
Materials and methods: Patients were prospectively randomized in this multi-institutional study to either 2 days or 7 days of preoperative antibiotics. Enrolled patients had stones requiring percutaneous nephrolithotomy and had either a positive preoperative urine culture or existing indwelling urinary drainage tube. Primary outcome was difference in sepsis rates between the groups. Secondary outcomes included rate of nonseptic bacteriuria, stone-free rate and length of stay.
Results: A total of 123 patients at 7 institutions were analyzed. There was no difference in sepsis rates between groups on univariate analysis. Similarly, there were no differences in nonseptic bacteriuria, stone-free rate and length of stay. On multivariate analysis, 2 days of antibiotics increased the risk of sepsis compared to 7 days of antibiotics (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.9, p=0.031). Patients receiving antibiotics for 2 days had higher rates of staghorn calculus than the 7-day group (58% vs 32%, p=0.006) but post hoc subanalysis did not demonstrate increased sepsis in the staghorn only group.
Conclusions: Giving 7 days of preoperative antibiotics vs 2 days decreases the risk of sepsis in moderate to high risk percutaneous nephrolithotomy patients. Future guidelines should consider infectious risk stratification for percutaneous nephrolithotomy antibiotic recommendations.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02829060.
Keywords: anti-bacterial agents; nephrolithiasis; nephrolithotomy; percutaneous; sepsis; urolithiasis.