Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in children, which has a multifactorial origin, can lead, if not treated, to severe medical complications, growth disturbances, behavioural changes and reduced quality of life. Nowadays, it is underdiagnosed whereas early screening, diagnosis and interdisciplinary treatment are essential. Furthermore, many families and health professionals do not often know where to go when there is suspicion of OSA for a child. Orthodontists are uniquely positioned to screen, to refer to the appropriate specialist and to treat, if needed, patients who may be at high risk for OSA. The authors describe the synergistic means to screen, diagnose and treat paediatric OSA in a collaborative and interactive approach between ENT, orthodontists, pneumo-allergologists, sleep physicians, endocrinologists, orofacial myo-functional therapists and speech therapists. These means which are clinically illustrated in this paper fit the guidelines which have been recently published as white papers by official professional specialists organisations involved in paediatric OSA treatment (AAPD, AAO, FFO, SFORL, SFRMS…). The development of multidisciplinary teams gathering specialists who are conscious about the mutual benefits of the specialties involved in paediatric OSA should contribute to optimize the child treatment care pathway and the short, mid and long term outcomes.
Keywords: Adenotonsillectomy; Multidisciplinary team; OSA; Orofacial myo-functional therapy; Orthodontics; Pediatrics; Pneumology; Rapid Maxillary Expansion.