Esophageal motility disorders on high-resolution manometry: Chicago classification version 4.0 ©

Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2021 Jan;33(1):e14058. doi: 10.1111/nmo.14058.

Abstract

Chicago Classification v4.0 (CCv4.0) is the updated classification scheme for esophageal motility disorders using metrics from high-resolution manometry (HRM). Fifty-two diverse international experts separated into seven working subgroups utilized formal validated methodologies over two-years to develop CCv4.0. Key updates in CCv.4.0 consist of a more rigorous and expansive HRM protocol that incorporates supine and upright test positions as well as provocative testing, a refined definition of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction (EGJOO), more stringent diagnostic criteria for ineffective esophageal motility and description of baseline EGJ metrics. Further, the CCv4.0 sought to define motility disorder diagnoses as conclusive and inconclusive based on associated symptoms, and findings on provocative testing as well as supportive testing with barium esophagram with tablet and/or functional lumen imaging probe. These changes attempt to minimize ambiguity in prior iterations of Chicago Classification and provide more standardized and rigorous criteria for patterns of disorders of peristalsis and obstruction at the EGJ.

Keywords: achalasia; esophageal spasm; integrated relaxation pressure; lower esophageal sphincter; peroral endoscopic myotomy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Esophageal Achalasia / classification
  • Esophageal Achalasia / diagnosis
  • Esophageal Achalasia / physiopathology
  • Esophageal Achalasia / therapy
  • Esophageal Motility Disorders / classification
  • Esophageal Motility Disorders / diagnosis
  • Esophageal Motility Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Esophageal Motility Disorders / therapy
  • Esophageal Spasm, Diffuse / classification
  • Esophageal Spasm, Diffuse / diagnosis
  • Esophageal Spasm, Diffuse / physiopathology
  • Esophageal Spasm, Diffuse / therapy
  • Esophagogastric Junction / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Manometry / methods*