Metabolic syndrome (MetS) characteristics include chronic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. This study assessed associations between circulating concentrations of micronutrients/phytochemicals and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers with MetS and MetS components. Adults (N = 606) from the European Health Examination Survey in Luxembourg (2013-2015) were randomly selected. We performed a multivariable logistic regression model using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator to identify MetS-associated variables. Participants with MetS had higher concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, leptin, insulin, and vitamins E/A, but lower concentrations of adiponectin, beta-carotene, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. A one-unit increase in log-CRP was associated with 51% greater odds of MetS (OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.98)). Adults with a one-unit increase in log-leptin were 3.1 times more likely to have MetS (3.10 (2.10, 4.72)). Women with a one-unit increase in vitamin A were associated with 3% increased odds of MetS (1.03 (1.01, 1.05)), while those with a one-unit increase in log-adiponectin were associated with 82% decreased odds (0.18 (0.07, 0.46)). Chronic inflammation best characterized adults with MetS, as CRP, adiponectin, and leptin were selected as the main MetS determinants. Micronutrients did not seem to affect MetS, except for vitamin A in women.
Keywords: adipokines; antioxidants; cardio metabolic health; population based study; secondary plant compounds.