The tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine candidate TV003 induces neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-DENV4) and protects against experimental challenge with DENV2 in humans. Here, we track vaccine viremia and B and T cell responses to this vaccination/challenge model to understand how vaccine viremia links adaptive immunity and development of protective antibody responses. TV003 viremia triggers an acute plasmablast response that, in combination with DENV-specific CD4+ T cells, correlates with serum neutralizing antibodies. TV003 vaccinees develop DENV2-reactive memory B cells, including serotype-specific and multivalent specificities in line with the composition of serum antibodies. There is no post-challenge plasmablast response in vaccinees, although stronger and earlier post-TV003 plasmablast responses associate with sterile humoral protection from DENV2 challenge. TV003 vaccine triggers plasmablasts and memory B cells, which, with support from CD4+ T cells, functionally link early vaccine viremia and the serum antibody responses.
Keywords: CD4 T cells; TV003; dengue vaccine; humoral immune response; memory B cells; neutralizing antibodies; protective immunity; serotype-specific antibodies; tetravalent live attenuated vaccine.
© 2020 The Author(s).