Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains one of the most important risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD), with approximately 20% of DM patients older than 40 years old are affected with PAD. The current standard management for severe PAD is endovascular intervention with or without surgical bypass. Unfortunately, up to 40% of patients are unable to undergo these revascularization therapies due to excessive surgical risk or adverse vascular side effects. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy for these 'no-option' patients. Several types of stem cells are utilized for PAD therapy, including bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). Many studies have reported the safety of BMMNC and PBMNC, as well as its efficacy in reducing ischemic pain, ulcer size, pain-free walking distance, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2). However, the capacity to establish the efficacy of reducing major amputation rates, amputation free survival, and all-cause mortality is limited, as shown by several randomized placebo-controlled trials. The present literature review will focus on comparing safety and efficacy between BMMNC and PBMNC as cell-based management in diabetic patients with PAD who are not suitable for revascularization therapy.
Keywords: Bone marrow mononuclear cells; Diabetes mellitus; Peripheral artery disease; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Stem cell therapy.