As an emerging research model in vitro, organoids have achieved major progress in recapitulating morphological aspects of organs and personalized precision therapy. Various organoids have been currently constructed in vitro (e.g., brain, heart, liver, and gastrointestinal). Though there are prominent advantages on microstructures and partial functions, most of them have been encountering a frustrating challenge that stromal components (e.g., blood vessels) are in short supplement, which has imposed the main dilemma on the application of such model ex vivo. As advanced technologies, co-culturing pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, with endothelial cells on 3D substrate matrix, are leaping forward, a novel model of an organoid with vascularization is formed. The mentioned contribute to the construction of the functional organoids derived from corresponding tissues, making them more reliable in stem cell research and clinical medicine. The present study overall summarizes progress of the evolution, applications and prospects of vascularized organoids.
Keywords: Applications; Pluripotent stem cells; Translational medicine; Vascular organoids.