Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an alphacoronavirus responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in pigs. A key determinant of viral tropism and entry, the PEDV spike protein is a key target for the host antibody response and a good candidate for a protein-based vaccine immunogen. We used electron microscopy to evaluate the PEDV spike structure, as well as pig polyclonal antibody responses to viral infection. The structure of the PEDV spike reveals a configuration similar to that of HuCoV-NL63. Several PEDV protein-protein interfaces are mediated by non-protein components, including a glycan at Asn264 and two bound palmitoleic acid molecules. The polyclonal antibody response to PEDV infection shows a dominance of epitopes in the S1 region. This structural and immune characterization provides insights into coronavirus spike stability determinants and explores the immune landscape of viral spike proteins.
Keywords: cryoelectron microscopy; glycoprotein; palmitoleic acid; polyclonal antibody; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
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