Clinical Features and Risk Factors of ICU Admission for COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes

J Diabetes Res. 2020 Dec 11;2020:5237840. doi: 10.1155/2020/5237840. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Introduction: Previous studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have focused on the general population. However, diabetes (DM) as one of the most common comorbidities is rarely studied in detail. This study is aimed at describing clinical characteristics and determining risk factors of ICU admission for COVID-19 patients with DM.

Methods: Data were extracted from 288 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital. Demographic characteristics, laboratory results, radiographic findings, complications, and treatments were collected and compared between DM and non-DM groups. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with ICU admission for COVID-19 patients with DM or non-DM.

Results: COVID-19 patients with DM showed as older ages, higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), myoglobin, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST). They were also more prone to transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment. Multiple regression analysis showed that the following were the independent risk factors for COVID-19 patients with DM that received ICU admission: each 1-year increase in age (odds ratio (OR), 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P = 0.007), respiratory rate over 24 times per minute (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 2.26-16.58; P = 0.016), HbA1c greater than 7% (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.82-10.55; P = 0.012), and AST higher than 40 U/L (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.58-8.85; P = 0.022). In addition, each 1-year increase in age (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10; P = 0.006), diarrhea (OR, 4.62; 95% CI, 2.01-9.36; P = 0.022), respiratory rate over 24 times per minute (OR, 5.13; 95% CI, 1.18-16.82; P = 0.035), CRP greater than 10 mg/L (OR, 5.19; 95% CI, 1.37-13.25, P = 0.009), and TnI higher than 0.03 μg/L (OR, 6.48; 95% CI, 1.17-21.38; P = 0.036) were risk factors for ICU admission of COVID-19 patients with non-DM.

Conclusions: The older age, respiratory rate over 24 times per minute, HbA1c greater than 7%, and AST higher than 40 U/L were risk factors of ICU admission for COVID-19 patients with diabetes. Investigating and monitoring these factors could assist in the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients with DM at an early stage.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • COVID-19 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Female
  • Hospitalization*
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Symptom Assessment