We aim to characterize patients with Gomez-López-Hernández syndrome (GLHS) clinically and to investigate them molecularly. A clinical protocol, including a morphological and neuropsychological assessment, was applied to 13 patients with GLHS. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and whole-exome sequencing were undertaken; magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 12 patients, including high-resolution, heavily T2-weighted sequences (HRT2) in 6 patients to analyze the trigeminal nerves. All patients presented alopecia; two did not present rhombencephalosynapsis (RES); trigeminal anesthesia was present in 5 of the 11 patients (45.4%); brachycephaly/brachyturricephaly and mid-face retrusion were found in 84.6 and 92.3% of the patients, respectively. One patient had intellectual disability. HRT2 sequences showed trigeminal nerve hypoplasia in four of the six patients; all four had clinical signs of trigeminal anesthesia. No common candidate gene was found to explain GLHS phenotype. RES does not seem to be an obligatory finding in respect of GLHS diagnosis. We propose that a diagnosis of GLHS should be considered in patients with at least two of the following criteria: focal non-scarring alopecia, rhombencephalosynapsis, craniofacial anomalies (brachyturrycephaly, brachycephaly or mid-face retrusion), trigeminal anesthesia or anatomic abnormalities of the trigeminal nerve. Studies focusing on germline whole genome sequencing or DNA and/or RNA sequencing of the alopecia tissue may be the next step for the better understanding of GLHS etiology.
Keywords: Gomez-Lopéz-Hernández; Rhombencephalosynapsis; focal alopecia; trigeminal anesthesia; whole exome sequencing.
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