Background: The exact prevalence and impact of cardiac injury in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still controversial. Hence, we aim to investigate prevalence of cardiac injury and its impact on the outcomes in patients with COVID-19.
Hypothesis: Cardiac injury is common and associated with higher risk of death.
Methods: We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, MedRxiv, and EMBASE databases from December 2019 to July 15, 2020 for studies that evaluated the prevalence and impact of cardiac injury on COVID-19. This study has been registered with PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews)-registration number-CRD-42020186120.
Results: Twenty-one studies including 6297 participants were identified. The proportions of cardiac injury were 22%, 28% among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 or severe COVID-19 patients, respectively. The incidences of cardiac injury in advance age (>60 years) (30%) was about two-fold than young patients (<60 years) (15%) with COVID-19. Severe cases (42%) have seven-fold prevalence cardiac injury than in their non- severe counterparts (6%). Furthermore, cardiac injury is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19 (OR 10.11, 95% CI 4.49-22.77). In patients with severe COVID-19, cardiac injury is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (OR: 16.79, 95% CI: 5.52-51.02).
Conclusions: This was the first meta-analysis exploring the prevalence and impact of cardiac injury on COVID-19. Cardiac injury is common in hospitalized patients and advanced age and severe COVID-19 patients prone to experience more risk of cardiac injury. Furthermore, cardiac injury is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality.
Keywords: cardiac injury; coronavirus disease 2019; death; intensive care unit.
© 2020 The Authors. Clinical Cardiology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.