Class D β-lactamases

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 Mar 12;76(4):836-864. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa513.


Class D β-lactamases are composed of 14 families and the majority of the member enzymes are included in the OXA family. The genes for class D β-lactamases are frequently identified in the chromosome as an intrinsic resistance determinant in environmental bacteria and a few of these are found in mobile genetic elements carried by clinically significant pathogens. The most dominant OXA family among class D β-lactamases is superheterogeneous and the family needs to have an updated scheme for grouping OXA subfamilies through phylogenetic analysis. The OXA enzymes, even the members within a subfamily, have a diverse spectrum of resistance. Such varied activity could be derived from their active sites, which are distinct from those of the other serine β-lactamases. Their substrate profile is determined according to the size and position of the P-, Ω- and β5-β6 loops, assembling the active-site channel, which is very hydrophobic. Also, amino acid substitutions occurring in critical structures may alter the range of hydrolysed substrates and one subfamily could include members belonging to several functional groups. This review aims to describe the current class D β-lactamases including the functional groups, occurrence types (intrinsic or acquired) and substrate spectra and, focusing on the major OXA family, a new model for subfamily grouping will be presented.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Catalytic Domain
  • Humans
  • Phylogeny
  • beta-Lactamases* / genetics
  • beta-Lactamases* / metabolism


  • beta-Lactamases