Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is seen as one of the main enabling technologies for automated vehicles. Collective perception is especially promising, as it allows connected traffic participants to "see through the eyes of others" by sharing sensor-detected objects via V2X communication. Its benefit is typically assessed in terms of the increased object update rate, redundancy, and awareness. To determine the safety improvement thanks to collective perception, the authors introduce new metrics, which quantify the environmental risk awareness of the traffic participants. The performance of the V2X service is then analyzed with the help of the test platform TEPLITS, using real traffic traces from German highways, amounting to over 100 h of total driving time. The results in the considered scenarios clearly show that collective perception not only contributes to the accuracy and integrity of the vehicles' environmental perception, but also that a V2X market penetration of at least 25% is necessary to increase traffic safety from a "risk of serious traffic accidents" to a "residual hypothetical risk of collisions without minor injuries" for traffic participants equipped with non-redundant 360° sensor systems. These results support the ongoing worldwide standardization efforts of the collective perception service.
Keywords: V2X communication; collective perception; cooperative perception; environmental perception.